Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, mirates, and nitrites
in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study


A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 14 Maggio 2017


Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Abstract
Importance:

Alternate-day fasting has become increasingly popular, yet, to date, no long-term randomized clinical trials have evaluated its efficacy.

Objective:
To compare the effects of alternate-day fasting vs daily calorie restriction on weight loss, weight maintenance, and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease.

Design, setting, and participants:
A single-center randomized clinical trial of obese adults (18 to 64 years of age; mean body mass index, 34) was conducted between October 1, 2011, and January 15, 2015, at an academic institution in Chicago, Illinois.

Interventions:
Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 1 year: alternate-day fasting (25% of energy needs on fast days; 125% of energy needs on alternating "feast days"), calorie restriction (75% of energy needs every day), or a no-intervention control. The trial involved a 6-month weight-loss phase followed by a 6-month weight-maintenance phase.

Main outcomes and measures:
The primary outcome was change in body weight. Secondary outcomes were adherence to the dietary intervention and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease.

Result:
Among the 100 participants (86 women and 14 men; mean [SD] age, 44 [11] years), the dropout rate was highest in the alternate-day fasting group (13 of 34 [38%]), vs the daily calorie restriction group (10 of 35 [29%]) and control group (8 of 31 [26%]). Mean weight loss was similar for participants in the alternate-day fasting group and those in the daily calorie restriction group at month 6 (-6.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -4.5%] vs -6.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -4.6%]) and month 12 (-6.0% [95% CI, -8.5% to -3.6%] vs -5.3% [95% CI, -7.6% to -3.0%]) relative to those in the control group. Participants in the alternate-day fasting group ate more than prescribed on fast days, and less than prescribed on feast days, while those in the daily calorie restriction group generally met their prescribed energy goals. There were no significant differences between the intervention groups in blood pressure, heart rate, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, or homocysteine concentrations at month 6 or 12. Mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at month 6 significantly increased among the participants in the alternate-day fasting group (6.2 mg/dL [95% CI, 0.1-12.4 mg/dL]), but not at month 12 (1.0 mg/dL [95% CI, -5.9 to 7.8 mg/dL]), relative to those in the daily calorie restriction group. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly elevated by month 12 among the participants in the alternate-day fasting group (11.5 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.9-21.1 mg/dL]) compared with those in the daily calorie restriction group.

Conclusions and relevance:
Alternate-day fasting did not produce superior adherence, weight loss, weight maintenance, or cardioprotection vs daily calorie restriction.

A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 12 Maggio 2017


Long term gluten consumption in adults without celiac disease
and risk of coronary heart disease: prospective cohort study


A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 09 Maggio 2017


Curcumin improves glucose tolerance via stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

Scope
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a type of incretin secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that curcumin (a yellow pigment of turmeric) significantly increases the secretion of GLP-1 in enteroendocrine L cell line (GLUTag cells). However, it is not clear whether its action in vivo directly enhances GLP-1 secretion, which then leads to a reduction in blood glucose levels via the stimulation of insulin secretion. In addition, the molecular target of curcumin-induced GLP-1 secretion has not been clarified.

Methods and results
Glucose tolerance was significantly improved in rats after pre-administered curcumin (1.5 mg/kg) followed by intraperitoneal glucose injections via the stimulation of GLP-1 secretion and the induction of insulin secretion. In GLUTag cells, curcumin-induced GLP-1 secretion was associated with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40/120. Furthermore, the glucose-lowering effect induced by curcumin was significantly reduced after the administration of a GPR40/120 antagonist in rats.

Conclusion
These findings demonstrate the biological function of curcumin as a GLP-1 secretagogue and the possible molecular target that mediates GLP-1 secretion. Increases in the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 induced by curcumin may allow the dosages of other diabetic medicines to be reduced and aid in the prevention of diabetes

A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 20 Gennaio 2017


The Scientific Basis of Guideline Recommendations on Sugar Intake

European consensus conference on faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice

Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance. In view of this, an evidence-based recommendation is needed to drive the practical implementation of FMT. In this European Consensus Conference, 28 experts from 10 countries collaborated, in separate working groups and through an evidence-based process, to provide statements on the following key issues: FMT indications; donor selection; preparation of faecal material; clinical management and faecal delivery and basic requirements for implementing an FMT centre. Statements developed by each working group were evaluated and voted by all members, first through an electronic Delphi process, and then in a plenary consensus conference. The recommendations were released according to best available evidence, in order to act as guidance for physicians who plan to implement FMT, aiming at supporting the broad availability of the procedure, discussing other issues relevant to FMT and promoting future clinical research in the area of gut microbiota manipulation. This consensus report strongly recommends the implementation of FMT centres for the treatment of C. difficile infection as well as traces the guidelines of technicality, regulatory, administrative and laboratory requirements.

A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 13 Gennaio 2017


A lifestyle intervention among elderly men on active surveillance for non-aggressive prostate cancer: a randomised feasibility study with whole-grain rye and exercise.

Background
The prognosis for men with non-aggressive prostate cancer is good, and several studies have investigated the impact of lifestyle changes including physical activity and diet on the prognosis. Despite positive results in animal studies and a few human interventions with whole-grain rye on markers of prostate cancer progression, the feasibility of trials investigating such dietary changes in combination with physical activity remains largely unstudied. The primary aim was to investigate the feasibility of an intervention with high whole-grain rye intake and vigorous physical activity for 6 months in men diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Methods
In total, 26 men (53-72 years) recently diagnosed with non-aggressive prostate cancer and on active surveillance, were enrolled in 2011-2012 and randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention included 170 g/day of whole-grain rye and 3 × 45 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity. The duration of the intervention was 6 months and end of follow-up 12 months after baseline. Clinic visits were scheduled at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months after baseline. Compliance with the intervention was evaluated by diaries, food frequency questionnaires, biomarkers, and heart rate monitor data. The effect of the intervention was evaluated by linear multiple regression analysis.

Results
In the intervention group, the mean daily intake of whole-grain rye measured from diaries was 146 g (SD: 19) for the first 3 months and 125 g (SD: 40) for the last 3 months of the intervention. The median level (5th and 95th percentiles) of vigorous physical activity was 91 (17, 193) min/week for the first 3 months and 66 (13, 259) min/week for the last 3 months. No recordings of physical activity were done for the control group. Aerobic fitness (VO2 peak) increased in the intervention group compared to the control group after the intervention. No effects were found on other cardio-metabolic outcomes or prostate cancer progression.

Conclusions
The lifestyle intervention appeared feasible for 6 months among Danish men and the results are encouraging for conducting full-scale studies, where the impact of whole-grain rye and vigorous physical activity on prostate cancer progression and metabolic parameters can be evaluated.

A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 13 Gennaio 2017


Periconceptional maternal 'high fish and olive oil, low meat' dietary pattern is associated with increased embryonic growth: The Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort (Predict Study)

Objective
To investigate associations between periconceptional maternal dietary patterns and first trimester embryonic growth.

Methods
228 women with singleton ongoing pregnancies were enrolled in a prospective periconceptional cohort study, comprising of 135 strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies and 93 pregnancies achieved after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI pregnancies). All women underwent longitudinal transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) scans from 6+0up to 13+0 weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length (CRL) and embryonic volume (EV) measurements were performed using a virtual reality system. Periconceptional maternal dietary intakes were collected via food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Principal component analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. Associations between dietary patterns and CRL and EV trajectories were investigated using linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders.

Results
A median of five (range 1-7) 3D-US scans per pregnancy were performed. 991 out of 1162 datasets (85.3%) were of sufficient quality to perform CRL measurements and 899 for EV measurements (77.4%). A 'high fish and olive oil, low meat' dietary pattern comprising of high intakes of fish and olive oil, and very low intake of meat was identified. In strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies, a strong adherence to this dietary pattern was associated with a 1.9 mm (95% CI: 0.1, 3.63) increased CRL at 7 weeks (+14.6%) and 3.4 mm (95% CI: 0.2, 7.81) at 11 weeks (+6.9%), whereas EV increased by 0.06 cm3 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) at 7 weeks (+20.4%) and 1.43 cm3 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.87) at 11 weeks (+14.4%) respectively. No significant associations were observed in the total study population and IVF/ICSI pregnancies.

Conclusion
Periconceptional maternal adherence to a 'high fish and olive oil, low meat' dietary pattern is positively associated with embryonic growth in strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies.

Miscellanea dalla letteratura internazionale (PubMed) a cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 12 Gennaio 2017


Revisiting the refeeding syndrome: Results of a systematic review

Objective
Although described >70 y ago, the refeeding syndrome (RFS) remains understudied with lack of standardized definition and treatment recommendations. The aim of this systematic review was to gather evidence regarding standardized definition, incidence rate and time course of occurrence, association with adverse clinical outcomes, risk factors, and therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat this condition.

Methods
We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for interventional and observational clinical trials focusing on RFS, excluding case reports and reviews. We extracted data based on a predefined case report form and assessed bias.

Results
Of 2207 potential abstracts, 45 records with a total of 6608 patients were included (3 interventional trials, 16 studies focusing on anorexic patients). Definitions for RFS were highly heterogenous with most studies relying on blood electrolyte disturbances only and others also including clinical symptoms. Incidence rates varied between 0% and 80%, depending on the definition and patient population studied. Occurrence was mostly within the first 72 h of start of nutritional therapy. Most of the risk factors were in accordance with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, with older age and enteral feeding being additional factors. There was no strong evidence regarding association of RFS and adverse outcomes, as well as regarding preventive measures and treatment algorithms.

Conclusion
This systematic review focusing on RFS found consensus regarding risk factors and timing of occurrence, but wide variations regarding definition, reported incidence rates, preventive measures and treatment recommendations. Further research to fill this gap is urgently needed.

A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 8 Gennaio 2017

Guidelines to Limit Added Sugar Intake: Junk Science or Junk Food?

When it comes to added sugars, there are clear conflicts between public health interests and the interests of the food and beverage (F&B) industry. Studies are more likely to conclude there is no relationship between sugar consumption and health outcomes when investigators receive financial support from F&B companies. Industry documents show that the F&B industry has manipulated research on sugars for public relations purposes . Erickson and colleagues report a systematic review of the scientific basis of guidelines on sugar intake, providing another occasion for concern about these conflicts . The review examined 9 guidelines that offered 12 recommendations on sugar consumption. It concluded that the guidelines do not meet criteria for trustworthy recommendations, judging the evidence supporting each recommendation to be of low quality.

A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 22 Dicembre 2016