Dietoterapia dell'obesità: è possibile confezionare una dieta veramente "su misura"?


A cura di Claudio Tubili - Marzo 2018


Hyperglycemia is associated with cardiac complications in elderly nondiabetic patients receiving total parenteral nutrition.

Abstract

Adverse outcomes have been associated with hyperglycemia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The relationship may be characteristic in elderly patients. However, limited data are available about the relationship between TPN-related hyperglycemia and cardiac adverse outcome in elderly patients without previously known diabetes. This study aims to identify whether there is an association between hyperglycemia and 45-day cardiac adverse outcomes in critically and noncritically ill elderly nondiabetic patients receiving TPN. Outcome measures of 45-day cardiac complications after receiving TPN were recorded from a retrospective review of 1517 medical and surgical elderly patients. The mean glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with cardiac complications than in patients without cardiac complications (P < .001).

In multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and medications, higher mean blood glucose levels were independently associated with increased 45-day cardiac complications (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.453-1.816; P < .001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves demonstrated that patients with mean blood glucose level ≥11.1 mmol/L had worse cardiac complications event-free survival compared with those mean blood glucose level <11.1 mmol/L during 45 days after receiving TPN.This study showed that TPN-induced hyperglycemia was associated with increased risk of cardiac complications in both critically and noncritically ill elderly patients without a history of diabetes.

Articoli tratti da PubMed a cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 13 Febbraio 2018


Fish consumption and cardiovascular disease related biomarkers: A review of clinical trials.

Abstract

The purpose of this review is to collect and compare fish intervention studies. Prospective studies have outlined the beneficial effect of frequent fish consumption on cardiovascular incidents that is attributed to n-3 fatty acids incorporated in fish, mainly eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. This outcome triggered clinical trials to examine the effect of either fish intake or consumption of n-3 fatty acids via capsules on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The absence of a recent review focusing on clinical trials regarding fish intake and not n-3 fatty acids supplements rendered necessary the composition of this article. In total, 28 studies on healthy volunteers were found to meet the inclusion criteria. With EPA and DHA intake varying between 0.03 to 5g per day, biomarkers, such as triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and platelet aggregation, tended to ameliorate when daily intake exceeded 1g per day, while the most common inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein, was not affected. In all, fish consumption gives promising results; yet fish micronutrients, total diet fat, as well as other dietary habits may also affect biomarkers. Therefore, all these factors should be considered in future clinical trials in order for one to draw more reliable conclusions.

Articoli tratti da PubMed a cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 9 Febbraio 2018


The effects of probiotics in lactose intolerance: A systematic review.

Abstract

Over 60 percent of the human population has a reduced ability to digest lactose due to low levels of lactase enzyme activity. Probiotics are live bacteria or yeast that supplements the gastrointestinal flora. Studies have shown that probiotics exhibit various health beneficial properties such as improvement of intestinal health, enhancement of the immune responses, and reduction of serum cholesterol. Accumulating evidence has shown that probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products can be used to alleviate the clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance (LI). In this systematic review, the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of LI was evaluated using 15 randomized double-blind studies. Eight probiotic strains with the greatest number of proven benefits were studied. Results showed varying degrees of efficacy but an overall positive relationship between probiotics and lactose intolerance.degrees of efficacy but an overall positive relationship between probiotics and lactose intolerance.

Articoli tratti da PubMed a cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 3 Febbraio 2018


The low FODMAP diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome: an evidence-based review of FODMAP restriction, reintroduction and personalisation in clinical practice.

Abstract

Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is effective in the management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms that occur in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Numerous reviews have been published regarding the evidence for their restriction in the low FODMAP diet; however, few reviews discuss the implementation of the low FODMAP diet in practice. The aim of this review is to provide practical guidance on patient assessment and the implementation and monitoring of the low FODMAP diet.

Broadly speaking, the low FODMAP diet consists of three stages: FODMAP restriction; FODMAP reintroduction; and FODMAP personalisation. These stages can be covered in at least two dietetic appointments. The first appointment focuses on confirmation of diagnosis, comprehensive symptom and dietary assessment, detailed description of FODMAPs and their association with symptom induction, followed by counselling regarding FODMAP restriction. Dietary counselling should be tailored to individual needs and appropriate resources provided. At the second appointment, symptoms and diet are re-assessed and, if restriction has successfully reduced IBS symptoms, education is provided on FODMAP reintroduction to identify foods triggering symptoms. Following this, the patient can follow FODMAP personalisation for which a less restrictive diet is consumed that excludes their personal FODMAP triggers and enables a more diverse dietary intake. This review provides evidence and practice guidance to assist in delivering high-quality clinical service in relation to the low FODMAP diet.

Articoli tratti da PubMed a cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 15 Gennaio 2018


Consumption of a Low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides, and Polyols Diet and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

Abstract

Consumption of low dietary fermentable carbohydrates, including fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) has been hypothesized to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study was done to summarize findings from earlier evidence on the effect of a low FODMAP diet (LFD) on the symptoms of IBS. We searched in ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: "FODMAP" OR "oligosaccharides" OR "disaccharides" OR "Monosaccharaides" in combination with "irritable bowel syndrome" or "IBS" or "Gastrointestinal Disease." The reference lists of the relevant papers were also examined to avoid missing any publication. No time and language restrictions were applied. The relevant studies were selected through an independent search by two investigators. Overall, 778 relevant articles were found in our initial search. After reviewing title and abstracts, 763 papers were excluded from this review and 15 studies were included. All published studies were interventional studies in which patients with IBS had been recommended or randomized to receive a LFD.

Three studies had quasi-experimental design, 9 were parallel randomized clinical trial and 3 studies were of randomized cross-over trials. These studies were conducted between 2009 and 2016. Nine studies were done in Europe, 2 in US, 3 in Australia, and one in Asia. Sample sizes of these studies were varied from 12 to 182. All studies had been conducted on both sexes, with the majority of participants as women (>70%). The age range was between 11 and 74 years in different studies. One study was performed on children, 9 on adults, and 5 others were in young-to-middle age groups. Duration of intervention was varied from 2 days to 16 months (2 studies with <1 week, and others with more than 2 weeks). Eight studies had suggested a significant effect of LFD on the improvement of all IBS symptoms, and 1 study had reported improvement in all symptoms except for constipation. One study had not found a significant difference between LFD and lactobacillus GG on IBS symptoms. Another paper had reported no significant effect of an LFD on IBS compared with the traditional IBS diet. The other paper had reported LFD improved 75% of diarrhea. Adherence to an LFD was not associated with the severity of symptoms. It is concluded that consumption of an LFD might reduce symptoms of IBS; however, further studies are required to shed light on inconsistencies in this field.

Articoli tratti da PubMed a cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 13 Dicembre 2017

 

Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health:
a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies


A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - Luglio 2017


Eating disordes: recognition and treatment


A cura di Massimo Vincenzi - 09 Giugno 2017